What Causes High & Low Blood Glucose Levels in Kids?

Kids have a lot of energy. That’s no big secret to parents. And glucose, or sugar, is the body’s primary source of energy. Kids need glucose for their bodies and brains to function correctly. But too much, or not enough, can lead to health problems. So, it’s essential to know the causes of high and low blood glucose.

Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose levels. It allows the body to use sugar from carbohydrates for energy or store it for later. When the body has too much glucose in the blood, it’s known as hyperglycemia. When it has too little, it’s called hypoglycemia.

For kids with diabetes, their bodies don’t produce insulin, or their insulin doesn’t work the way it’s supposed to. This leads to high or low levels of blood glucose and needs to be adjusted and monitored with the help of your pediatrician.

What Causes High & Low Blood Glucose Levels in Kids?

Most kids, however, produce the right amount of insulin to regulate their blood glucose levels. But their levels will inevitably spike and drop, so it’s important to know why and be able to recognize the symptoms.

Causes of High Blood Glucose

A spike in blood glucose can happen for many reasons in children. As kids grow and their bodies change, the amount of insulin needed in their system changes as well. Here are some of the most common causes of high blood glucose to be aware of:

  • Overeating – If a child eats too much, that extra food is converted into excess glucose in the bloodstream.
  • Not eating the right food – A balanced diet is vital to good health. Eating a bunch of sweets and candy can spike glucose levels.
  • Illness – Fighting an illness, like the flu, can disrupt the body’s production of insulin.
  • Exercise – Not getting enough exercise can contribute to high glucose levels.
  • Insulin – Taking the right amount is essential for kids with diabetes.
  • Medication – Some medications can cause swings in blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of High Blood Glucose

When children have hyperglycemia, their bodies and brains are reacting to an overload of sugar. Common symptoms to look for include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Increased thirst or dry mouth
  • Feeling tired
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Fruity smelling breath

Causes of Low Blood Glucose

A low blood glucose level left untreated can lead to serious health issues, like seizures and loss of consciousness. Here are the leading causes:

  • Not eating enough – Kid’s bodies need fuel from food to function properly. Under-eating can lead to drops in blood glucose.
  • Low carbohydrate intake – Kids need to eat enough carbs, so their bodies have the necessary sugar and energy.
  • Illness – An illness can cause loss of appetite and vomiting, leading to under-eating.
  • Extra exercise – More physical activity than usual without also eating more food can drop blood glucose levels.
  • Insulin – Similar to hyperglycemia, taking the proper amount of insulin is crucial for those with diabetes.

Symptoms of Low Blood Glucose

Here’s what to look for:

  • Increased sweating
  • Hunger
  • Headaches
  • Shakiness
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Fatigue
  • Pale skin
  • Irritability

The only accurate way to know if your kids have high or low blood glucose is to get them checked by a doctor.

CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) UPDATE 3-17-2020

Our office is continuing to closely monitor the rapidly changing COVID-19 pandemic.  Recently Colorado has moved from a containment phase, where health department would research the contacts of all positive tests, to a mitigation approach to the virus, where it is assumed the novel coronavirus is widely circulating in the community.  Unfortunately, there is evidence of significant coronavirus spread in Colorado.  People who have mild cold symptoms in the community may be infected with COVID-19 and be unaware that they are infectious, allowing the virus to spread.

With these new developments, we have made some changes in our office procedures.  We are following the CDC and Colorado Public Health Department recommendations to help prevent spread of COVID-19 and keep our patients, families and employees safe and healthy.

  1. We are now scheduling well, healthy kids (check-ups, follow-up visits and counseling visits) in the mornings. All sick visits will be scheduled in the afternoons.  This will help us reduce possible exposures in the office to healthy individuals. If your child is scheduled for a well visit and has any respiratory symptoms, please call to reschedule your well visit.
  2. All families must call for an appointment. Upon calling the office each child’s condition will be assessed by our staff for appropriate treatment. Our clinical staff will ask very specific questions about your child’s illness. We ask that you describe your child’s symptoms as clearly as possible. This will allow us to determine whether a telemedicine or an in-office visit is appropriate.
  3. If we determine that an in-office visit is appropriate, we may ask that you remain in your car and call the office to inform us of your arrival in the parking lot. Once your room is ready, our staff will call you, meet you at the office entrance and escort you directly to an exam room. There will be no check-in or check-out at the front desk to limit potential exposure.
  4. We ask you to limit the number of persons coming to the appointment to a single adult.
  5. We may ask some appointments to reschedule for a telemedicine visit to reduce unnecessary exposure in the office.
  6. Our staff will be wearing personal protective equipment such as masks, gloves, face shields and gowns. This is protection for employees and our patients.
  7. Increased cleaning procedures have been implemented in the office.
  8. Due to significant increased call volume, response time to phone calls may be slower than usual, but we will return calls as quickly as possible.
  9. Currently testing for COVID-19 is prioritized for those requiring hospitalization, health care providers, high risk patients (the elderly, chronic underlying medical conditions, immunocompromised patients, those on dialysis etc.), or known COVID-19 exposure and have developed symptoms. At this time, COVID-19 testing is not recommended for otherwise healthy children with cold symptoms.
  10. The CDC is now recommending avoiding all gatherings of over 10 persons. CDC stresses staying home when you are sick, social distancing when you are around other people and frequent hand washing or sanitizing

We appreciate your patience and understanding as we implement our Pandemic Policies and Procedures. We thank you for entrusting your child’s care to us as we continue to provide the most comprehensive pediatric medical services.  As always, we will remain available to address your concerns and worries during this difficult time.

Thank You.

Focus on Kids Pediatrics and Indian Crest Pediatrics

 

Check out our previous informational article on COVID-19 Coronavirus

Also stay informed with the CDC sitehttps://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/index.html

A Parent’s Guide to Childhood Depression

Growing up can be a very challenging process, as the body goes through many physical and chemical changes. Throughout this process, your child is likely to display changes in behavior from time-to-time. Mood swings and temper tantrums are regular parts of growing up, and even though they are not fun, they usually pass.

A behavioral change isn’t always a cause for concern, but if a change impacts a child’s social and educational development, then it would be worth talking to your doctor. Some issues can be caused by ear and eye problems, but when the child seems to have the blues or starts avoiding situations, it could be a sign of childhood depression.

A Parent’s Guide to Childhood Depression

What is Childhood Depression?

Over the last decade, the cases of mental health disorders in children have been steadily increasing. Cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are becoming increasingly more common. Likewise, the CDC has reported an increase in the cases of childhood depression and anxiety.

Around 1 in 4 kids in the USA may suffer from depression at some stage in their lives. It can come in waves as a result of particular triggers, while in other cases, it can become chronic. In all situations, prompt treatment and support can help the child learn to manage the symptoms and live a full and active life.

What Causes Childhood Depression?

Many different factors can lead to a child feeling depressed or anxious. If there is a family history of mental health issues, then the child may be more at risk; however, this will usually happen in association with other issues. Common causes of childhood depression include:

  • Chronic health conditions
  • Problems at home
  • Physical, emotional, and sexual abuse
  • Stressful life events, such as a divorce or family bereavement
  • Bullying
  • Biochemical imbalances
  • Poor sleep

In many cases, a combination of different things can trigger depression or anxiety in kids.

Symptoms of Childhood Depression

Every kid will get the blues or have some mood swings as they go through childhood. However, these tantrums or spells usually come and go very quickly.

When kids have prolonged spells of sadness or changes in behavior, then it is worth seeking advice. Things to look out for include:

  • Irritability and angry outbursts
  • Loss of interest in activities
  • Changes in sleep patterns
  • Anxiety or panic attacks
  • Appetite changes
  • Problems with concentration
  • Loss of confidence
  • Emotional issues, such as feeling empty, numb, or worthless

There may be physical symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, and muscle pains.

In more severe cases, the child may have thoughts of hurting themselves and may even self-harm.

Treatment

Luckily, there has been an increased awareness of mental health issues throughout the USA. These days, people are more likely to talk about depression and ask for help than they were in the past. Therefore, it is vitally important that you speak to your child if you think they are depressed.

They may not want to or know how to, so don’t pressure them. Being as supportive as possible and offering them the opportunity to speak to someone in the family will provide reassurance.

If you are worried about your child’s behavior, or if they tell you they are feeling low, then book an appointment with a doctor as soon as possible.

They will be able to test for any physical triggers and also advise you on the best course of action. Therapies such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) allow kids to understand their feelings and learn strategies to cope with them. Some kids may be offered medicine to manage their symptoms and level out any chemical imbalances.

Coronavirus Important Information

COVID-19 is a novel Coronavirus (a family of respiratory viruses) that began to spread in mainland China in December 2019. The virus causes flu like symptoms (fever, runny nose, cough, sneezing, body aches, and fatigue). In some cases, just like the influenza virus, it can cause severe breathing issues. As of the writing of this article, there have been about 50 cases in the continental United States with a vast majority acquired when patients were overseas.
Person to person spread in the US is very very rare at this point. Currently, only hospitals and health departments can test for this virus – we cannot test in our office.  If your child:
  • has flu like symptoms and has visited mainland China in the last month or
  • has had contact with someone who has been diagnosed with COVID-19 or that has flu like symptoms that has been to mainland china in the last month 
then please call your local health department.

A Quick Guide to Arthritis Causes and Symptoms in Kids

Arthritis is a condition that most people associate with older people. However, it can also affect kids of all ages. There are many different kinds of arthritis, but juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common in kids.

The CDC has reported that around 1 in 1,000 kids will be diagnosed with JIA. The condition can affect kids in many different ways, so any issues must be quickly identified and treated. Today, we will have a closer look at Arthritis causes & symptoms in kids.

Arthritis Causes and Symptoms in Kids

What is JIA?

Arthritis is a painful condition that causes chronic joint pain and stiffness. It can also cause swelling in the affected area. It can affect all the major joints, such as knee, wrist, hips, ankles, and shoulders.

In some cases, the symptoms will come and go again without any long-term issues. However, some cases of JIA can lead to severe complications without can have a massive impact on the child’s life.

Typically, if the pain and stiffness last for around six weeks, then there is a possibility that the child has some arthritis. The good news is that JIA is treatable, and for many kids, the condition will not affect their ability to lead a full and active life.

What Are the Symptoms?

The symptoms of JIA may affect one joint or many different areas of the body. In all cases, the child will suffer from one or more of these symptoms:

  • Joint pain
  • Swelling
  • Joint Stiffness
  • Fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes

Many of these symptoms may occur if the child plays a lot of sports, leads an active life, or spends a lot of time immobile. However, if there has been no prior history of injuries, trips, and falls, and the pain stays for longer than a week, it is worth getting the child checked out.

Quick diagnosis and the start of treatment can significantly reduce complications from occurring. If the condition is left untreated, it may harm eye health and the overall physical development of the child.

Causes

JIA is an autoimmune disease that attacks the tissues in the affected joints. At this stage, there is no definitive answer to what causes JIA to occur. Some kinds of arthritis may be caused by genetics, but there is limited evidence as to how this happens.

Treatments

If your doctor suspects that your child has JIA, they will arrange for some blood tests and scans to confirm the diagnosis. From there, they will create a treatment plan that will help with pain management and improve the movement of the joint.

There is a selection of medicines available that can help to control the swelling and reduce the pain, while also reducing the chances of long-term damage. Physical therapy may be recommended for some children to help them improve the overall range of movement within the affected joint. They will also make recommendations on exercise, posture, and other areas that will enable the child to participate as fully as possible in everyday activities.

A Quick Guide to Bipolar Disorder in Children

It is perfectly normal for children to act out and go through mood swings from time to time. Even though this may drive you crazy, it is all part of their learning process as they start to interact with the world and develop their personality. However, there are times when this behavior can occur for more extended periods and may become very disruptive. In these cases, the behavior may be caused by a behavioral disorder, such as bipolar.

Although bipolar disorder is more likely to occur in teenagers and adults, it can affect people of all ages. Generally, it is easier to notice the signs and symptoms in older patients. In younger children, there are a lot of similarities in behavior with kids that have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This can be very confusing for parents, so we have put together a quick guide to bipolar disease in children.

A Quick Guide to Bipolar Disorder in Children

What is Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health problem that can lead to extreme changes in mood and behavior. Toddler tantrums and teenage angst are common issues that affect all kids to varying degrees and are just a normal part of growing up. However, someone with bipolar disorder will go through cycles of intense mood swings and behaviors, which can cause a lot of emotional distress for the child and disruption at home and school.

Signs and Symptoms of Bipolar Disease

It is highly unlikely that kids under six will demonstrate symptoms of bipolar disorder, and in general, the condition is much more common from adolescence onwards. In younger children, the symptoms are quite similar to ADHD, so it can be difficult to diagnose. However, the signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder in kids can include:

  • Severe mood swings
  • Long periods of depression
  • Hyperactive, impulsive, and risky behaviors
  • A tendency to be aggressive or socially inappropriate
  • Poor sleep or insomnia

The symptoms tend to come in waves, and after an episode, their behavior will level off. Therefore, it can be a very challenging disorder to treat.

Causes of Bipolar Disorder

There has been a lot of research on the causes of bipolar disorder, and there is strong evidence that genetics and environmental factors can play a major role. Kids who have a close relative with bipolar disorder are at a higher risk of developing symptoms.

Stressful life events can have an enormous impact on children and may trigger an initial change in behavior. In some cases, changes in the biochemical structure of the brain can lead to significant changes in behavior.

When to Speak to Your Doctor

If you are concerned about your child’s mood or behavior, you should speak to your doctor, who can carry out an examination and decide whether any tests are required to see if there are underlying problems. Sometimes, behavioral and mood issues can be caused by ear and eye problems that don’t have any visible symptoms.

The sooner any physical or behavioral problems are identified, the sooner treatments can begin. Living with bipolar disorder can be challenging for all members of the family, but with treatment and lifestyle management, the child should lead a full and productive life.

Common Signs & Symptoms of Anemia in Children

From the moment a baby is born, they go through changes on a daily basis. The first few years of a newborn’s life, and when they reach adolescence, are two periods where the body undergoes significant changes. It is quite common during these periods for kids to develop symptoms of anemia.

Anemia can affect people of all ages and happens when the body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells. There are many kinds of anemia. Some are caused by an insufficient amount of hemoglobin in the blood or deficiencies in minerals such as iron. Read on to discover the common signs and symptoms of anemia to look out for in children.

Common Signs & Symptoms of Anemia in Childrens

What Is Anemia?

Anemia is very common, affecting around 20 percent of kids in the USA. It is usually caused by a lack of red blood cells or hemoglobin, which means that not enough oxygen gets moved around the body. In some cases, the body may not be able to make enough, and some conditions may cause the level of red blood cells to decrease.

There are many different types of anemia with various causes:

  • Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia. Iron deficiency limits the body’s ability to create hemoglobin and red blood cells.
  • Megaloblastic anemia leads to abnormally large red blood cells due to a lack of folic acid or vitamin B-12 in the blood. These cells poorly absorb vitamin B-12, which is essential for the creation of healthy red blood cells.
  • Hemolytic anemia occurs when red blood cells are destroyed by infection or as a side effect of certain medicines.
  • Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition that leads to abnormally shaped red blood cells.
  • Aplastic anemia is caused by a failure of the bone marrow to create blood cells.

Common Symptoms of Anemia

In some cases, your child may not display any symptoms at all. In fact, many cases of anemia only show up during routine health checks, so make sure that you attend regular child wellness exams.

There are usually a few telltale signs to look out for, and these include:

  • Pale skin, cheeks, and lips
  • Irritability or moody
  • Tiredness and lethargy
  • Rapid heartbeat or breathing
  • Dizziness and lightheadedness
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes, dark urine)
  • Cuts and wounds that take longer than normal to heal

Risk Factors

While anemia is very common among kids, there are some risk factors that increase the chances of a child developing symptoms. These include:

  • Premature birth
  • Poor diet with low levels of iron and other essential vitamins
  • Long-term illnesses or infections
  • Family history of sickle cell anemia

Treatment for Anemia

Treatment will depend on the type of anemia and the severity of the symptoms. In many cases, prevention is the best remedy, with diet and child wellness exams being great starting points.

Attend Child Wellness Exams – In many cases, anemia is detected during routine screening, and there may be no noticeable symptoms. As it is a common issue for kids, your doctor will closely look for any signs during child wellness exams. It is vital that you regularly attend these examinations, as they can give you lots of information about your child’s overall health and development.

Diet – Your child goes through a lot of changes during their childhood, so it is essential that they have a balanced and healthy diet to give them a helping hand. Many forms of anemia are often caused by iron or mineral deficiencies linked to poor diets. Try to add iron-rich foods to their daily diets from an early age. Choices like meat, fish, beans, oatmeal, and leafy green vegetables are all great sources of iron.

Other Treatments – If your child has an inherited condition such as sickle cell anemia, your doctor will recommend ways to ensure that your child can enjoy a full and active life. Some kids may need various medicines and dietary supplements. More severe cases may even require blood transfusions.

Everything You Need to Know About the Appendix in Teenagers

The appendix is a tiny pouch that is attached to the large intestine. Scientists are still not exactly sure what its function is, but they do know that if it gets infected, it can cause many painful problems.

You have probably heard of appendicitis, which is when the appendix gets inflamed. This condition can get very painful and requires prompt medical treatment. The last thing you want is for the appendix to burst, as this can lead to complications. That is why we have put together this short guide on everything you need to know about the appendix in teenagers.

Everything You Need to Know About the Appendix in Teenagers

Symptoms of Appendicitis

There are around 80,000 cases of appendicitis a year in kids and teenagers across the USA. While children can get appendicitis, it is more likely to occur in individuals between the ages of 10 and 19.

The first sign of appendicitis is tummy pain, which may be mild to start with. It will then get progressively get worse, resulting in severe pain on the right side of the abdomen. If your child is finding it painful to move or breathe, you should get them checked out immediately. Other symptoms to look out for include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Gas pain
  • Swollen tummy
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite

Treatment

If you suspect that your child has appendicitis, then it is essential that you get them checked out as quickly as possible. Your pediatrician will perform a series of tests and decide on the best course of action based on the symptoms.

In the majority of cases, if a child has appendicitis, the appendix will be removed immediately to ensure that there are no further complications. It is perfectly safe for the appendix to be removed, and it should have no impact on the child’s digestive health moving forward.

What Causes Problems with the Appendix

In many cases, appendix problems run in the family. Not every child will get appendicitis, but if there is a family history of appendicitis, you should pay close attention to your child’s digestive health.

Appendicitis can also be caused by fungi, bacteria, or a virus, while kids with Crohn’s disease will be at increased risk of developing appendix problems.

Ways to Help at Home

While there is no way to avoid the onset of appendicitis, there are things you can do to reduce the risk. Making sure that you and your family have a balanced diet is a great place to start.

A high fiber diet is highly recommended, as this helps to develop a healthy digestive tract. Research suggests that appendicitis is lower in people who eat a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables. Bananas, carrots, broccoli, and potatoes are all great sources of fiber as well as other vital nutrients.

It is also helpful to ensure that your children remain active and drink lots of water, as this will help to keep things moving in the digestive system.

All You Need to Know about Hepatitis C Symptoms & Causes in Kids

Hepatitis C (HCV) is a disease that affects the liver. HCV can lead to liver damage, which can have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life. While it is rare for kids to get infected with this disease, parents need to be aware of the risk factors.

Adults tend to be more at risk of getting HCV, especially if they use recreational drugs. In this post, we will take a closer look at the Hepatitis C symptoms and causes.

Hepatitis C Symptoms and Its Causes in Kids

How Do Kids Get HCV?

People can become infected with HCV if they come into direct contact with blood or other bodily fluids of someone who already has HCV. There is a risk of transmission to newborns during pregnancy if the mother has HCV. However, it cannot be transmitted through breastfeeding.

In some cases, the disease can be spread by sharing household items such as toothbrushes or nail clippers. Another way that kids can get HCV is if they receive an HCV infected organ transplant or if they receive long-term kidney dialysis and the machine has traces of infected blood.

As mentioned above, adults are at a much higher risk of getting the HCV virus. Getting tattoos with unsterilized needles or sharing needles or nasal devices for taking drugs are two of the leading methods of transmission. It could also be spread through unprotected sexual contact or if you received an infected organ or blood transfusion when you were a child. Young adults are at risk if they experiment with drugs or have unprotected sex.

HCV doesn’t always result in symptoms, so it is crucial to get checked out if you feel you may have been exposed to the virus in the past.

Symptoms

For many people, HCV might not cause any symptoms, even though it is causing damage to the body. If you believe that your child is at risk of contracting HCV, it is essential to take them for regular health checks and to pay attention to their general health. Symptoms of an HCV infection include:

  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin)
  • Darker colored urine
  • Belly pain
  • Aches and pains
  • Loose, gray-colored stools
  • Nausea and vomiting

Treatment

In some cases, the body will cure itself as the child grows up. The CDC has reported that up to 40 percent of newborns born with HCV were clear by the time they reached their second birthdays. However, if the virus is still present after the child’s second birthday, your doctor may recommend starting treatment.

Currently, the only treatment for children under twelve years old is interferon or ribavirin. These drugs are effective at eliminating the virus in the majority of cases. However, they do come with some potential side effects that can have an impact on a child’s daily life, such as depression and fatigue.

There are many new developments in drugs for HCV with better cure rates and fewer side effects, but they are currently unavailable for kids and are still quite expensive.

A Quick Guide on Sports Injuries in Teenagers

With almost 30 million kids and adolescents playing sports in the USA, it should come as no surprise that kids can get injured. Contact sports and extreme sports are the primary culprits, but there are other factors at play.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, around 3.5 million kids have suffered some form of sports injury at some point. While injuries and accidents can happen when playing sports, many injuries are preventable. In this post, we will take a closer look at some common sports injuries in teenagers and how they can be prevented.

Quick Guide on Sports Injuries in Teenagers

Sports Injuries

Different kinds of sports bring various risks, but generally, injuries can be categorized into two different types—acute injuries or overuse injuries.

Acute injuries are usually the result of trauma or a high impact, which can result in injuries such as sprains, fractures, and concussions. Teenagers who practice extreme sports or contact sports are at increased risk of these injuries, especially if they don’t use the correct safety equipment.

Overuse injuries can happen when a player performs regular, repetitive movements. Overuse injuries such as tennis elbow, tendonitis, and stress fractures can cause many problems if left untreated. These types of injuries are becoming more common in sports like baseball, tennis, and soccer, where the players might push themselves to reach a higher level.

As mentioned, different sports come with various risks, but the list below will highlight a few of the common issues associated with different sports.

Football: Sudden, quick movements and high-impact challenges can lead to sprains and strains such as ACL tears. Plus, there is a risk of concussions.

Baseball: Tendinitis and bursitis can affect many different areas of the body. For example, pitchers may suffer from overuse injuries, which can cause inflammation in the shoulders and wrists. Other common issues include strains, back and neck pain, and rotator cuff injuries.

Soccer: Many issues associated with football occur during soccer. Some teenagers may suffer from Achilles tendonitis and shin splints.

Tennis: Overuse can lead to injuries such as ligament and muscle sprains. Ankle and knee injuries are also quite common.

Athletics: Many injuries in track and field are caused by overuse. Strains and sprains are very common, as well as ligament tears.

How To Prevent Sports Injuries

Most sports injuries can be avoided by using these simple steps.

Warm-up and warm-down: You should always warm-up before you start playing your favorite sport. This will help your muscles and ligaments loosen up, and it will significantly reduce the risk of muscle strains and ligament injuries.

Use the right equipment: Making sure that you wear the correct safety equipment, as well as well-fitting sports shoes, can help protect your body and help you avoid any imbalances that can lead to injuries.

Pay attention to your body: If you feel sore or notice that something doesn’t feel right, stop playing immediately. Rest and don’t start playing again until the pain has gone away.

Diet and hydration: A balanced and healthy diet will help to strengthen muscles and bones while staying well-hydrated aids movement and blood flow.

Do what your doctor tells you: If you have an injury, make sure you follow your doctor’s instructions to the letter. Just because you’re feeling better doesn’t mean that you are good to go. Returning to action before you’ve properly healed can lead to further injuries and extra time on the sidelines.